C3 peer energy review



Transparent and Verified Results

The PEER Program generates large-scale, verified energy savings to meet energy efficiency and demand response goals in a cost-effective manner. The printed Energy Savings Reports generate between 1.5 and 2.5% savings, while the online component of the program generates over 6% savings. Program savings are tracked against a comparable control group on a monthly basis, so that utilities can see real and predictable results within the first month of a deployment.

Evaluation Method

C3 uses large-scale data analysis protocols, including Experimental Design, Quasi-Experimental Design, and Delayed Treatment Analysis, to calculate aggregate energy savings. Employing standard difference-of-differences analysis, the change in usage in participant households from one year to another is compared against similar changes from a robust control group. All weather, economic, price, building code, and other exogenous factors are accounted for, in order to determine the PEER program’s specific ability to generate verified energy savings.

All customers within the utility service territory are eligible to participate in the PEER program by signing up online at the program website. A select number of customers also receive Energy Savings Reports via direct mail and/or email. Customers are categorized in the following manner:

  • Passive customers: Those who receive Energy Savings Reports but do not sign up online.
  • Engaged customers: Those who receive Energy Savings reports and also sign up online.
  • Opt-In customers: Those who sign up online and do not receive a paper or email Energy Savings Report.
  • Control group: Customers who are in all key respects similar to those in the program, but have neither received an Energy Savings Report nor have signed up online.

This hybrid program design enables utilities to capture broad savings from customers who only receive the Energy Savings Reports, while also capturing deep savings from customers who are engaged in the online programs.


The control group is determined based on a random assignment of opt-out customers who receive an Energy Savings Report, and through a robust matching process for opt-in participants that is calibrated using a Delayed Treatment Analysis. The matching process identifies non-participating customers who are as similar as possible to participating customers through the development of a propensity score. The propensity score is determined by quantitatively determining the factors most responsible for bill variation and program participation, including past billing patterns, property data, and demographic characteristics. The propensity score is calibrated through a Delayed Treatment Analysis that compares the bills of program participants before they join, to the bills of program participants who have previously joined.

In order to prevent double counting, savings from other programs are factored out of the PEER Program. Deemed savings from control and participant groups are determined through program data and/or customer surveys, with the difference between the participant and control group deemed savings factored out of the verified savings from the PEER program.

Independent Verification

C3 programs are evaluated independently by leading academics and evaluation firms. C3 provides all necessary and requested program information to designated independent evaluators, including billing data, various non-resource metrics, audit results, customer savings commitments, and more.

C3 works closely with evaluators before program launch, to ensure that any requested analyses can be completed during program implementation. C3 monitors these same metrics during program execution, continually improving the customer experience to enhance results.

Energy Modeling Validation

Personal Energy Advisor℠ powers the PEER Program and can also be used as a stand-alone energy audit and advisory tool. Employing unique hybrid statistical-engineering models, the software calculates personalized energy profiles for each customer and models the savings opportunities from hundreds of actions and purchases.

Download A High-Resolution Statistical Model of Residential Energy End Use Characteristics for the United States

Personal Energy Advisor is the first RESNET-certified online energy survey tool on the market today. RESNET is the leading accreditation body for home energy audit and survey tools. The core analytical engine backing Personal Energy Advisor has also been peer-reviewed by leading academics; an article about the engine has been published in the Journal of Industrial Ecology.


Jim Gramata
Managing Team Broker
The Gramata Realty Group


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